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In the past years we have often written about the Armin Strom Mirrored Force Resonance, a wristwatch that we are especially fond of (you can read our full review here).

This model is equipped with a sophisticated dual regulator mechanism with the primary goal to increase precision and rate stability by taking advantage of the resonance phenomenon.

It utilizes two independent mainsprings, gear trains, escapements, and balances, each connected by a rack and pinion to allow fine tuning of the distance between them.

The precise adjustment of the distance between the two regulators is necessary to incite resonance, resulting in the two balances finding a concurrent rhythm in opposite directions so as to continuously average out errors for maximum accuracy.

Mechanical resonance is a physical phenomenon which can affect most objects. In fact, any object free to vibrate has its own specific vibration rate. This is called the object's natural frequency or resonant frequency and it depends on several variables, including size, shape, and composition of the object.

Due to resonance, even a relatively weak vibration in one object could drive another object to oscillate with greater amplitude when the frequency of its oscillations matches the object’s natural frequency.

An example of resonance is provided by a car engine that causes vibration in another component of the car. These vibrations occur because that component has a natural frequency equal to the frequency of the vibrations set up by the engine. The component is said to be in resonance with the engine.

Especially in seismic zones, buildings are constructed to take into account the oscillating frequencies of expected ground motion. Generally, structures are designed to resonate at frequencies which do not typically occur.

Some resonant objects have more than one resonance frequency, particularly at harmonics (multiples) of the strongest resonance. It will vibrate easily at those frequencies, and less so at other frequencies. It will "pick out" its resonance frequency from a complex excitation, such as an impulse or a wideband noise excitation.

In watchmaking only few watchmakers attempted to take advantage of this phenomenon to improve accuracy, precision and rate stability of a timepiece.

Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695), the Dutch mathematician and physicist who invented the pendulum clock, first reported the phenomenon of resonance by observing the oscillations of two pendulums hanging on a wall in close proximity.

No matter how the pendulums on these clocks began, within about a half-hour, they ended up swinging in exactly the opposite direction from each other.

Although at that time Huygens did not have the proper mathematical knowledge (differential calculus had not been invented yet) for explaining this behaviour which he described as an "odd kind of sympathy", he realized that the responsible for the phenomenon could be the small vibrations of the wooden bar on which the clocks were hanging.

At the end of the 18th century, French clockmaker Antide Janvier (1751-1835) had the idea to build two complete movements with two precision escapements and to place them close to each other, ensuring that the two pendulums were hanging from the same construction. Just as he imagined, the pendulums recovered the energy dissipated by each other and began to beat together, thus entering into resonance and enhancing precision.

An astronomical, 3 week-going, weight-driven, "resonance" double pendulum wall regulator with two independent trains produced by Antide Javier. Image courtesy of Antique Clocks Price Guide

Thirty years later, Abraham-Louis Breguet created his famous double pendulum clock. Resonance was used to lock the two pendulums in anti-phase, that is, swing in opposite directions. Once locked into anti-phase, each pendulum will correct errors in the other, should they occur.

The Breguet No. 3671, also known as the double pendulum clock.
Made for King George IV, this clock is still in possession of the British royal family. Breguet made only two other double pendulum clocks, of which one remains in the Musée des arts et métiers in Paris and the other was burnt in the 1871 fire that destroyed the Palais des Tuileries.
Image courtesy of the Royal Collection

More recently, François-Paul Journe decided to pay tribute to the research conducted on resonance by the great 18th century watchmakers.

In 1983, he took up the challenge with a first creation in the form of a pocket-watch, which did not yet perform according to his expectations. After fifteen more years of research and development, he was finally able to present his Chronomètre à Resonance, the first resonance wristwatch.

The movement had two completely separate gear trains leading to the twin oscillators with individual escapements.

In 2005, Beat Haldimann also took advantage of resonance to increase precision but with a different approach. In fact, for his H2 Flying Resonance the twin flying tourbillons rotating around a shared central axis were powered by just one gear train. Nonetheless, each balance had its own escapement, hence acting as separate resonant mechanical systems.

If we look at the implementation that Armin Strom introduced at the end of 2016 for the Mirrored Force Resonance model and its hand-wound Calibre ARF15, we notice two independent mainsprings, gear trains, escapements, and balances, each connected by a rack and pinion to allow fine tuning of the distance between them and brought to the front face of the watch.

The resonance clutch spring is a fundamental element of this complex mechanical system. Its shape is so sophisticated that the brand’s team, led by technical director Claude Greisler, had to create it in-house. It took two and a half years perfecting the spring, until it had the optimal form to connect Armin Strom’s two sets of oscillators.

The possibility to precisely adjust the distance between the two regulators is a fundamental feature to tune such a sophisticated system and incite resonance.

When the two balances find a concurrent rhythm in opposite directions, there are at least three main advantages: a stabilizing effect on timekeeping, a conservation of energy (think of a cyclist riding in the shadow of another cyclist in a racing situation), and a reduction of negative effects on timekeeping accuracy due to outside perturbation.

For example, an outside shock that slows one of the balances down increases the speed of the other one by the same amount; both balances will strive to get back in resonance, thereby averaging and minimizing the effects of the outside influence as they find their rhythm.

If the 48-hour power reserve has been exhausted and the movement requires to be wound again, the twin balance wheels will need approximately 10 minutes to become synchronous. In case of any outside influence in the form of shock, it takes only a few minutes for the two balances to find their resonant rhythm once again.

This behaviour is explained by the fact that the resonance clutch spring connects the balance spring studs which receive the impulses rather than the balance wheels.

While improving the watch’s overall precision, the beauty of the resonance implementation used by Armin Strom also stands in the possibility to observe this phenomenon, and admire how the two resonant regulators work in a sympathetic manner, while wearing the watch on the wrist.

## A SELECTION OF BRANDS

Name

A. Lange & Sohne,140,Accutron,1,AkriviA,10,Alain Silberstein,4,alarm,18,Alpina,15,Andersen Geneve,2,Andersmann,2,Andreas Strehler,5,Angelus,6,annual calendar,43,Anonimo,15,Anthony de Haas,1,Antiquorum,4,Antoine Martin,2,Antoine Preziuso,1,Apple,2,Apple Watch,2,Aquadive,2,Aquastar,1,Armin Strom,79,Arnold and Son,27,Artime,1,Astarwatch,1,Atelier de Chronometrie,1,Ateliers deMonaco,2,Atmos,1,Auctions,92,Audemars Piguet,95,Autodromo,1,automaton,2,BA111OD,1,Ball Watch,1,Bamford,2,Baselword 2022,1,Baselworld,8,BaselWorld 2013,50,BaselWorld 2014,53,Baselworld 2015,69,Baselworld 2016,27,Baselworld 2017,64,Baselworld 2018,75,Baselworld 2019,41,Baselworld 2020,2,Baume,4,Baume & Mercier,16,Baume et Mercier,70,Bell & Ross,40,Bernhard Lederer,4,Bernhard Zwinz,1,bespoke,1,Blancpain,94,blue dial,3,Bonhams,2,Bovet,14,Brands histories,1,Breguet,125,Breitling,74,Bremont,1,Bremont Watch Company,4,Breva,2,bronze,28,Bücherei,1,Bucherer,1,Bulgari,117,Bulova,2,Burberry,1,C3H5N3O9,1,carbon,3,carillon,3,Carl F. Bucherer,4,Carl Suchy,1,Carrera,18,Cartier,48,ceramic,20,Certina,12,Chanel,4,Chaumet,3,chiming hour,13,Chopard,42,Christiaan van der Klaauw,1,Christie's,9,Christophe Claret,5,Christopher Ward,15,chronograph,754,chronometer,41,Chronoswiss,6,Citizen,4,co-axial,1,column-wheel,7,complete calendar,28,complications,89,concept watch,5,Concord,1,constant-force,39,Corum,18,Credor,2,CSEM,1,Cuervo y Sobrinos,1,Cyrus,34,Czapek,8,Dan Niederer,1,Davosa,1,Daytona,8,De Bethune,28,de Grisogono,3,dead seconds,21,Delma,1,detent escapement,4,DeWitt,9,digital display,1,dive watches,76,diving,8,diving watches,395,double regulator,3,Doxa,36,drei,1,dress watches,516,dual time,106,Ebel,2,Eberhard,35,Edouard Koehn,6,Edox,6,El Primero,41,Emile Chouriet,1,Emmanuel Bouchet,1,Emmanuel Breguet,1,enamel dial,14,enamelling,16,Equation of time,9,ETA,1,Eterna,18,exhibitions,1,F.P.Journe,39,Faberge,2,factory tours,3,Favre-Leuba,1,feature article,88,features,124,Felipe Pikullik,2,Ferdinand Berthoud,8,flyback,58,Fondation de la Haute Horlogerie,1,Formex,1,Fortis,9,Franc Vila Founder,1,Franck Muller,7,Frederic Jouvenot,1,Frederique Constant,17,Furlan Marri,1,FVF,1,Gallet,1,Garrick,1,Geneva Watchmaking Grand Prix,8,Georg Jensen,1,George Daniels,4,Gerald Charles,2,Gerald Genta,13,Girard-Perregaux,48,Glashuette,19,Glashuette Original,91,Glashütte,33,Glashütte Original,124,Glycine,4,GMT,133,GoS,1,GoS Watches,1,GPHG,20,GPHG 2020,3,GPHG 2021,3,GPHG 2022,3,GPHG 2023,3,GPHG2019,1,Graham,6,Grand Feu,6,Grand Prix d’Horlogerie de Geneve,16,Grand Seiko,34,Grande Complication,28,Grande Sonnerie,8,Greubel Forsey,38,greubelforsey,1,Gronefeld,10,Grönefeld,8,Grossmann,3,guilloché,8,H. Moser and Cie,50,H20 Watch,1,Habring,10,Habring2,11,Hajime Asaoka,2,Hallmark of Geneva,2,Hamilton,37,hands-on,124,Hanhart,18,Harry Winston,11,Hautlence,6,Hermes,26,Heuer,2,high jewellery,2,high-frequency,3,Hublot,62,Hybris Artistica,1,Hydro Mechanical Horologists,7,HYT Watches,16,Icon,1,In pictures,17,independent watchmaker,38,industry news,234,interview,8,Interviews,8,IWC,169,Jacques Bianchi,1,Jaeger-LeCoultre,127,Jaquet Droz,58,Jean-Francois Mojon,1,Jean-Marc Pontroué,1,JeanRichard,3,jumping hours,37,Junghans,11,Kaj Korpela,1,Kari Voutilainen,11,Kenissi,1,Kollokium,1,Korpela,1,Krayon,4,Kudoke,5,Kurono,2,L.Leroy,1,L'Epee 1839,1,Labails,1,Ladies watches,193,Lang & Heyne,4,Lang 1943,1,Lange,51,large date,3,Laurent Ferrier,25,Laureus,2,Le Garde Temps,1,Lederer Watches,4,Leica,3,Lemania,1,Leroy,4,Linde Werdelin,2,Longines,97,Louis Erard,30,Louis Moinet,7,Louis Vuitton,2,luxury steel watch,26,LVMH,10,LVMH 2020,6,M.A.D.Edition,4,M.A.D.Editions,4,Maîtres du Temps,1,Manufacture Contemporaine du Temps,3,Manufacture Royale,3,Marc Lang,1,marine chronometer,2,Marqueterie,1,Maurice de Mauriac,2,Maurice Lacroix,26,MB&F,68,MCT,1,MeisterSinger,94,meteorite,3,metiers d'art,2,Mickey Mouse,2,Mido,63,military watches,14,Minerva,4,Ming,2,Minute Repeater,62,monopusher chronograph,5,Montblanc,58,moon phases,127,Moritz Grossmann,31,Moser,45,Muhle,6,Mühle-Glashütte,5,mystery watches,4,Nautilus,13,New Britain Corp,1,new watches,3723,Nivada,2,Nomos,78,Norqain,31,Ochs und Junior,6,Officine Panerai,107,Omega,197,Only Watch,15,Only Watch 2015,4,Only Watch 2017,2,Only Watch 2019,3,Only Watch 2021,4,Only Watch 2023,10,Oris,44,paillonne,1,Panerai,110,Parmigiani,17,Parmigiani Fleurier,36,Pascal Coyon,1,Patek,60,Patek Philippe,137,Pedrozo & Piriz,1,perpetual calendar,151,Perrelet,11,Petermann Bedat,3,Phenomen,1,Philippe Dufour,1,Phillips,10,Piaget,38,Pierre DeRoche,2,pilot watch,115,Pininfarina,1,Pisa,15,Pisa 1940,3,Pisa Circle,13,Pita,1,planetarium,2,platinum,7,pocket watch,3,pocket watches,2,Poehlmann-Bresan,2,Poincon de Geneve,2,Porsche Design,17,Pre-SIHH 2016: Cartier - Clé de Cartier Automatic Skeleton,1,pulsometer,5,Purnell,1,quartz,10,Rado,19,Ralf Tech,3,Ralph Lauren,2,rattrapante,24,Raul Pages,2,Raymond Weil,5,rectangular watches,16,reddot award,1,regatta,1,regulator,28,remontoire,5,Remy Cools,1,Renaud Tixier,1,Reservoir,2,resonance,21,Ressence,13,retrograde,10,Revelation,1,Reverso,26,review,125,RGM,1,RGM Watch Co.,1,Richard Mille,115,Richemont,4,Richmond,1,Roger Dubuis,12,Roger Smith,1,Roger W. Smith,1,Rolex,72,Romain Gauthier,12,Romain Jerome,1,Royal Oak,39,Rudis Sylva,1,sapphire,4,Schwarz Etienne,1,Seamaster,10,Seiko,41,SevenFriday,25,SIHH,3,SIHH 2012,4,SIHH 2013,25,SIHH 2014,36,SIHH 2015,43,SIHH 2016,44,SIHH 2017,41,SIHH 2018,43,SIHH 2019,53,Simon Brette,2,Singer,7,Singer Reimagined,11,single hand,30,single-hand watches,36,Sinn,16,skeleton,35,smartwatch,9,solar energy,1,Sotheby's,8,Speake Marin,6,Speake-Marin,6,Speedmaster,37,split seconds,24,sport,1,sport watches,970,sportwatches,1,Spring Drive,2,square watches,3,squelette,59,steampunk,1,Steinhart,1,Strehler,1,striking time,16,SuisseMecanica,1,sunrise,2,sunset,2,Swatch,9,Swatch Group,23,Sylvain Pinaud,2,table clocks,4,Tag Heuer,179,tantalum,1,technical insight,3,terra Cielo Mare,1,Theo Auffret,1,Tiffany,17,Tissot,9,titanium,12,top news,433,Torsti Laine,1,tourbillon,375,Trilobe,4,Tudor,38,Tulloch,1,Tutima,3,ultra thin,36,Ulysse Nardin,40,Unimatic,1,Union Glashutte,14,Universal Genève,1,Urban Jurgensen,29,Urwerk,22,Vacheron Constantin,83,Van Cleef & Arpels,7,Vauchier Fleurier,1,Vianney Halter,5,video,1,vintage watches,3,Vulcain,11,wandering hours,1,watches,1,Watches & Wonders,42,Watches & Wonders 2020,19,Watches & Wonders 2021,28,Watches & Wonders 2022,35,Watches & Wonders 2023,38,Watches & Wonders 2024,47,Watches & Wonders 2025,1,Watches&Wonders,10,WatchesandWonders2022,35,WatchesandWonders2023,39,WatchesandWonders2024,48,WatchesandWonders2025,1,Wilhelm Schmid,1,Winnerl,1,worldtime,58,YEMA,4,Zannetti,1,Zeitwerk,2,Zeitwinkel,1,Zenith,112,Zodiac,9,
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Time and Watches | The watch blog: In pursuit of precision: mechanical resonance and watches
In pursuit of precision: mechanical resonance and watches
Resonance watches. Mechanical resonance and watches. The Armin Strom Mirrored Force Resonance is equipped with a sophisticated dual regulator mechanism with the primary goal to increase precision and rate stability by taking advantage of the resonance phenomenon. Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695). French clockmaker Antide Janvier (1751-1835) had the idea to build two complete movements and place them close to each other. Thirty years later, Abraham-Louis Breguet created his famous double pendulum clock. More recently, François-Paul Journe took up the challenge presenting his Chronomètre à Resonance. Armin Strom introduced at the end of 2016 the Mirrored Force Resonance model with a resonance mechanism.
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